43 of the infrastructure of Poland's educational and research institutions and 14 of its museums had been destroyed. In addition to publication of news (from intercepted Western radio transmissions there were hundreds of underground publications dedicated to politics, economics, education, and literature (for example, Sztuka i Naród ). 54 Censorship at first targeted books that were considered to be "serious including scientific and educational texts and texts that were thought to promote Polish patriotism; only fiction that was free of anti-German overtones was permitted. 48 53 In Toruń, all Polish monuments and plaques were torn down. 228 a b c Madajczyk 1970,. .
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73 Underground culture edit Patrons edit Polish culture persisted in underground education, publications, even theater. (2005 Life in the Ghettos During the Holocaust, Syracuse University Press, isbn Szarota, Tomasz (1988 Okupowanej Warszawy dzień powszedni (in Polish Czytelnik,. . On 8 October, Nazi Germany annexed the western areas of pre-war Poland and, in the remainder of the occupied area, established the General Government. 68 In line with Soviet anti-religious policy, churches and religious organizations were persecuted. Dear, majority of scholars believe that "In the Soviet occupation zone, conditions were only marginally less harsh than under the Germans." 2 In September 1939, many Polish Jews had fled east; after some months of living under.
51 Overall, it is estimated that about 10 million volumes from state-owned libraries and institutions perished during the war. 109 Underground actors, many of whom officially worked mundane jobs, included Karol Adwentowicz, Elżbieta Barszczewska, Henryk Borowski, Wojciech Brydziński, Władysław Hańcza, Stefan Jaracz, Tadeusz Kantor, Mieczysław Kotlarczyk, Bohdan Korzeniowski, Jan Kreczmar, Adam Mularczyk, Andrzej Pronaszko, Leon Schiller, Arnold Szyfman, Stanisława Umińska. 171173 Madajczyk 1970,. . 23 Notable items plundered by the Nazis included the Altar of Veit Stoss and paintings by Raphael, Rembrandt, Leonardo da Vinci, Canaletto and Bacciarelli. 151 a b Madajczyk 1970,. . 5 By 1 October, Germany and the Soviet Union had completely overrun Poland, although the Polish government never formally surrendered, and the Polish Underground State, subordinate to the Polish government-in-exile, was soon formed. In time, he ordered the creation of the Orchestra and Symphony of the General Government in its capital, Kraków. 240 (in Polish Cholewa-Selo, Anna (2005 Muza i Jutrzenka. 155156 Salmonowicz 1994,. .
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59 Music was the least restricted of cultural activities, probably because Hans Frank regarded himself as a fan of serious music. 58 Hence, theatrical productions were also boycotted by the underground. 78 Education edit Further information: Education in Poland during World War II In response to the German closure and censorship of Polish real escorts oslo teen shemale
schools, resistance among teachers led almost immediately to the creation of large-scale underground educational activities. 78 These Departments oversaw efforts to save from looting and destruction works of art in state and private collections (most notably, the giant paintings by Jan Matejko that were concealed throughout the war). In addition, actors were discouraged from performing in them and warned that they would be labeled as collaborators if they failed to comply. The only Polish-language newspaper published in occupied Poland was also closed, and the arrests of Polish intellectuals began. 323, isbn Trela-Mazur, Elżbieta ; Bonusiak, Włodzimierz; Ciesielski, Stanisław Jan; Mańkowski, Zygmunt; Iwanow, Mikołaj (eds.) (1997 "Sowietyzacja oświaty w Małopolsce Wschodniej pod radziecką okupacją 19391941", Sovietization of education in eastern Lesser Poland during the Soviet occupation (in Polish Kielce: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna. 48 Cinemas, now under the control of the German propaganda machine, saw their programming dominated by Nazi German movies, which were preceded by propaganda newsreels. 10 A similar situation faced theaters, which were forbidden by the Germans to produce "serious" spectacles. Stories Behind the Photographs, In: Reportaże z Powstania Warszawskiego (Warsaw Uprising Reportages KAW, Warsaw, 1983. Polish teachers were dismissed, and some were invited to attend "orientation" meetings with the new administration, where they were either summarily arrested or executed on the spot. 47 The last Polish book titles not already proscribed were withdrawn in 1943; even Polish prayer books were confiscated. 24 Even exotic animals were taken from the zoos. Polish clergy and religious leaders figured prominently among portions of the intelligentsia that were targeted for extermination. 115 Many of these activities were coordinated under the Action N Operation of Armia Krajowa's Bureau of Information and Propaganda. 112 Polish music, including orchestras, also went underground. 81 82 Classes were either held under the cover of officially permitted activities or in private homes and other venues. London Branch of the Polish Home Army Ex-Servicemen Association. A b Salmonowicz 1994,. . An Introductory Report on the State of Knowledge) (in Polish Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Reklama, isbn Ordęga, Adam; Terlecki, Tymon (1945 Straty kultury polskiej, (Losses of Polish Culture, 19391944) (in Polish Glasgow: Książnica Polska Pruszynski, Jan.h (1997 "Poland: The War Losses. 109 Theater was also active in the Jewish ghettos and in the camps for Polish war prisoners. 46 The public destruction of Polish books was not limited to those seized from libraries, but also included those books that were confiscated from private homes. 11 One of the Department's earliest decrees prohibited the organization of all but the most "primitive" of cultural activities without the Department's prior approval.